Starch is a complex carbohydrate made up of many glucose units linked together by alpha 1-4 glucosidic bonds. It exists in two forms: linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin), where the latter is formed by alpha 1-6 glucosidic bonds. Each glucose unit in starch has three hydroxyl groups that can undergo chemical modification.
Starch acetate is a modified starch. It is obtained by esterification of food starches with acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate in accordance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The esterification/acetylation results in substitution of hydroxyl groups with acetyl esters.
Starch acetate may additionally be subjected to acid, alkali, enzyme, or bleaching treatment in accordance with good manufacturing practice.
INS No. 1420
Description: White or nearly white powder or granules or (if pregelatinized) flakes, or amorphous powder or coarse particles.
General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) Provisions for Starch Acetate (E/INS 1420)
*Note: Unless otherwise specified, food additive provisions apply to the food category indicated (e.g. Dairy), as well as to all subcategories of that category (e.g. Cheese, Ripened Cheese, etc.).
(1) Complementary foods for infants and young children
Foods that are intended for infants 6 months of age and older, and for progressive adaptation of infants and children to ordinary food. Products may be ready-to-eat or in powder form to be reconstituted with water, milk, or other suitable liquid. These foods exclude infant formulae, follow-up formulae, and formulae for special medical purposes. Examples include: cereal-, fruit-, vegetable-, and meat-based “baby foods” for infants, “toddler foods,” and “junior foods”; lactea flour, biscuits and rusks for children.
Max Level: 50,000 mg/kg
- Excluding products conforming to the Standard for Canned Baby Foods (CODEX STAN 73-1981).
- Singly or in combination with other modified starches used as thickeners in products conforming to the Standard for Processed Cereal-Based Foods for Infants and Young Children (CODEX STAN 74-1981).
(2) Fermented milks (plain), heat-treated after fermentation
Includes fluid and non-fluid plain products, such as yoghurt and plain drinks based on fermented milk. They have been heat-treated (e.g. sterilized or pasteurized) after fermentation.
Max Level: GMP
Notes: For use as a stabilizer or thickener only.
(3) Fermented milks (plain), not heat-treated after fermentation
Includes fluid and non-fluid plain products, such as yoghurt and plain drinks based on fermented milk.
Max Level: GMP
Notes: For use as a stabilizer or thickener only; For use in reconstituted and recombined products only.
(4) Frozen battered fish, fish fillets, and fish products, including mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms
Uncooked product prepared from fish or fish portions, with dressing in eggs and bread crumbs or batter. Examples include: frozen raw breaded or batter-coated shrimp; and frozen or quick-frozen breaded or batter-coated fish fillets, fish portions and fish sticks (fish fingers).
Max Level: GMP
Notes: For non-standardized food and for breaded or batter coatings in food conforming to the Standard for Quick Frozen Fish Sticks (Fish Fingers), Fish Portions and Fish Fillets – Breaded or in Batter (CODEX STAN 166-1989).
(5) Pasteurized cream (plain)
Cream subjected to pasteurization by appropriate heat treatment or made from pasteurized milk. Includes milk cream and “half-and-half.”
Max Level: GMP
Notes: Excluding products conforming to the Standard for Cream and Prepared Creams (reconstituted cream, recombined cream, prepackaged liquid cream) (CODEX STAN 288-1976).
(6) Renneted milk (plain)
Plain, coagulated milk produced by the action of milk coagulating enzymes. Includes curdled milk. Flavoured renneted milk products are found in Dairy-based desserts (e.g. pudding, fruit or flavoured yoghurt)
Max Level: GMP
(7) Sterilized and UHT creams, whipping and whipped creams, and reduced fat creams (plain)
Includes every cream, regardless of fat content, which has undergone a higher heat-treatment than pasteurization. Also includes pasteurized creams with a reduced fat content, as well as every cream intended for whipping or being whipped. Sterilized cream is subjected to appropriate heat-treatment in the container in which it is presented to the consumer. Ultra-heat treated (UHT) or ultrapasteurized cream is subjected to the appropriate heat treatment (UHT or ultrapasteurization) in a continuous flow process and aseptically packaged. Cream may also be packaged under pressure (whipped cream). Includes whipping cream, heavy cream, whipped pasteurized cream, and whipped cream-type dairy toppings and fillings. Creams or toppings with partial or total replacement of milkfat by other fats are included cream analogues.
Max Level: GMP
GSFA Table 3 Provisions for Starch Acetate (E/INS 1420)
Starch acetate is a food additive that is included in GSFA General Conditions of Table 3, and as such may be used in the following foods under the conditions of good manufacturing practices (GMP) as outlined in the Preamble of the Codex GSFA. Although not listed below, Starch acetate could also be used in heat-treated butter milk (in Fluid milk (plain)) and spices (in Herbs and spices). Note that food categories listed in the Annex to Table 3 were excluded accordingly.
Starch acetate is acceptable in foods conforming to the following commodity standards: CS 249-2006, CS 94-1981, CS 119-1981, CS 70-1981.
Starch acetate is a: Emulsifier, Stabilizer, Thickener
Any Emulsifier listed in Table 3 can be acceptable for use in all products conforming to CS 117-1981, CS 309R-2011.
Any Stabilizer listed in Table 3 can be acceptable for use in all products conforming to CS 117-1981.
Any Thickener listed in Table 3 can be acceptable for use in all products conforming to CS 117-1981.
|Flavoured fluid milk drinks|
|Condensed milk and analogues (plain)|
|Clotted cream (plain)|
|Milk powder and cream powder and powder analogues (plain)|
|Dairy-based desserts (e.g. pudding, fruit or flavoured yoghurt)|
|Liquid whey and whey products, excluding whey cheeses|
|Fat spreads, dairy fat spreads and blended spreads|
|Fat emulsions mainly of type oil-in-water, including mixed and/or flavoured products based on fat emulsions|
|Fat-based desserts excluding dairy-based dessert products of food category|
|Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet|
|Dried vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), seaweeds, and nuts and seeds|
|Vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), and seaweeds in vinegar, oil, brine, or soybean sauce|
|Canned or bottled (pasteurized) or retort pouch vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), and seaweeds|
|Vegetable (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), seaweed, and nut and seed purees and spreads (e.g., peanut butter)|
|Vegetable (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), seaweed, and nut and seed pulps and preparations (e.g. vegetable desserts and sauces, candied vegetables), and seed purees and spreads (e.g., peanut butter)|
|Cooked or fried vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera), and seaweeds|
|Breakfast cereals, including rolled oats|
|Pre-cooked pastas and noodles and like products|
|Cereal and starch based desserts (e.g. rice pudding, tapioca pudding)|
|Batters (e.g. for breading or batters for fish or poultry)|
|Pre-cooked or processed rice products, including rice cakes (Oriental type only)|
|Soybean products (excluding soybean-based seasonings and condiments)|
|Processed meat, poultry, and game products in whole pieces or cuts|
|Processed comminuted meat, poultry, and game products|
|Edible casings (e.g. sausage casings)|
|Semi-preserved fish and fish products, including mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms|
|Fully preserved, including canned or fermented fish and fish products, including mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms|
|Dried and/or heat coagulated egg products|
|Preserved eggs, including alkaline, salted, and canned eggs|
|Egg-based desserts (e.g. custard)|
|Table-top sweeteners, including those containing high-intensity sweeteners|
|Seasonings and condiments|
|Soups and broths|
|Sauces and like products|
|Salads (e.g. macaroni salad, potato salad) and sandwich spreads excluding cocoa- and nut-based spreads|
|Yeast and like products|
|Soybean-based seasonings and condiments|
|Protein products other than from soybeans|
|Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes (excluding Infant formulae, follow-up formulae, and formulae for special medical purposes for infants)|
|Dietetic formulae for slimming purposes and weight reduction|
|Dietetic foods (e.g. supplementary foods for dietary use) excluding:|
– Infant formulae, follow-up formulae, and formulae for special medical purposes for infants
– Complementary foods for infants and young children
– Dietetic foods intended for special medical purposes
– Dietetic formulae for slimming purposes and weight reduction
– Food supplements
|Water-based flavoured drinks, including “sport,” “energy,” or “electrolyte” drinks and particulated drinks|
|Beer and malt beverages|
|Cider and perry|
|Wines (other than grape)|
|Distilled spirituous beverages containing more than 15% alcohol|
|Aromatized alcoholic beverages (e.g. beer, wine and spirituous cooler-type beverages, low alcoholic refreshers)|