E Number and INS Number of Modified Starches and Their Functions

The chemically modified starches are regulated globally by various organizations; hence, different regulations are applied depending on the extent of chemical modification, the function in food products, and the country of origin. The chemically modified starch is designated as food additive and is required to label the name of additive as “food starch-modified” on the package or the function of the food additive in that food.

In Europe, the food label is indicated with E numbers, for which no maximum numerical level is specified for most of the food products, except “cream and cream powder with fat content less than 20%” and “cereal-based foods and baby foods for infants and young children” are fixed to a certain amount of addition (The European Parliament and Council on Food Additives, 2008).

In Australia and New Zealand, International Numbering System (INS) number is used, which is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and most of food additives must be listed by their class name followed by the food additive number or the code (FAO/ WHO Standards, 2017) (Table 1). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prescribed a regulation, 21 CFR 172.892, to ensure the safe quantities for the application of chemically modified starch in food products (Table 2).

Type of Modified StarchE NumberINS NumberbFunction (CCFAC)b
Dextrins, roasted starch white and yellow1400aCarrier, emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Acid-treated starch1401aEmulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Alkaline treated starch1402aEmulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Bleached starch1403aEmulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Oxidized starchE14041404Emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Starches, enzyme-treated1405aEmulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Etherified Starch
Hydroxypropyl starchE14401440Stabilizer, thickener
Esterified Starch
Distarch phosphate trimetaphosphateE14121412Stabilizer, thickener
Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydrideE14201420Emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Starch sodium octenyl succinateE14501450Stabilizer, thickener
Cross-Linked Starch
Monostarch phosphateE14101410Emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Etherified + Esterified Modified Starch
Phosphated distarch phosphateE14131413Emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Acetylated distarch phosphateE14141414Emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Acetylated distarch adipateE14221422Emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphateE14421442Anticaking agent, stabilizer, emulsifier, thickener
Acetylated oxidized starchE14511451Emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener
Starch aluminum octenyl succinateE14521452Anticaking agent, carrier, stabilizer
Table 1. E Number and INS Number of Modified Starches and Their Functions

aDextrin; bleached starch; and starches modified by acid, alkali, and enzyme or by physical treatment are not considered as food additives in the context of the Regulation (EC) No. 1333/2008.

bInternational Numbering System (INS) 1989 CAC/GL 36-1989, by Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants CCFAC, adopted in 1989, revised in 2008 and amended in 2017.

Acid-Treated Starch
Hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid or both
Bleached Starch
Active oxygen hydrogen peroxide and/or peracetic acid<0.45%
Ammonium persulfate and sulfur dioxide(NH4)2S2O8 <0.075%;
SO2 <0.05%
Calcium hypochlorite<0.036% d.b. Used only as a component of batter
Sodium hypochlorite<0.0082% d.b.
Potassium permanganate<0.2% and residual manganese (calculated as Mn) <50 ppm
Sodium chlorite<0.5%
Oxidized Starch
Sodium hypochlorite<0.055% d.b.
Cross-Linked Starch
Phosphorus oxychloride<0.1%
Phosphorus oxychloride followed by either acetic anhydride or vinyl acetateAnhydride <8%, vinyl acetate <7.5%, with acetyl groups <2.5%
Sodium trimetaphosphateResidual phosphate <0.04%
Sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium trimetaphosphateResidual phosphate <0.4%
Etherified Starch
AcroleinC3H4O <0.6%
EpichlorohydrinC3H5CIO <0.3%
Epichlorohydrin and propylene oxide added in combination or in any sequenceC3H5ClO <0.1%, CH3CHCH2O <10%, and residual propylene chlorohydrin <5 ppm
Epichlorohydrin followed by propylene oxideC3H5ClO <0.1%;
CH3CHCH2O <25%
Propylene oxide<25%
Esterified Starch
Acetic anhydrideAcetyl groups <2.5%
Adipic anhydride and acetic anhydride<0.12%
Monosodium orthophosphateResidual phosphate <0.4%
1-Octenyl succinic anhydride<3%
1-Octenyl succinic anhydride and aluminum sulfate<2%
1-Octenyl succinic anhydride followed by treatment with a β-amylase enzyme<3%, limited use as a stabilizer or emulsifier in beverage
Succinic anhydrideC4H4O3 <4%
Vinyl acetateAcetyl groups <2.5%
Esterified + Etherified Starch
Acrolein and vinyl acetateC3H4O <0.6%; C4H6O2 <7.5%; and acetyl groups <2.5%
Epichlorohydrin and acetic anhydrideC3H5ClO <0.3% and acetyl groups <2.5%
Epichlorohydrin and succinic anhydrideC3H5ClO <0.3%; C4H4O3 <4%
Phosphorus oxychloride and propylene
POCl3 <0.1%; CH3CHCH2O <10%; and residual propylene chlorohydrin <5 ppm
Table 2. The Allowed Amount of Chemical Reactant in Modified Starches

Source: REGULATION (EC) No 1333/2008 on food additives; FDA 21 CFR 172.892

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *