Saccharification of liquefied starch

Maltodextrin (DE 15-25) produced from liquefied starch is commercially valuable for its rheological properties. Maltodextrins are used in the food industry as fillers, stabilizers, thickeners, pastes, and glues. When saccharified by further hydrolysis using amyloglucosidase or fungal α-amylase a variety of sweeteners can be produced, having dextrose equivalents in the ranges 40-45 (maltose), 50-55 (high […]


β-Amylases are exo-enzymes, which attack amylose chains resulting in efficient successive removal of maltose units from the non-reducing end. In the case of amylopectin, the cleavage stops two to three glucose units from the α-1,6-branching points. β-amylase is used for the production of maltose syrups and in breweries for adjunct processing. The most important commercial […]


During liquefaction, the α-1,4-linkages are hydrolyzed at random. This reduces the viscosity of the gelatinized starch and increases the dextrose equivalent (DE), a measure of the degree of the hydrolysis of the starch. The liquefaction is carried out in such a way as to give the required DE for the subsequent process. For saccharification to […]

Starch Liquefaction: Enzymatic Breakdown for Saccharification and Isomerization

As native starch is only slowly degradable by the use of α-amylases, gelatinization and liquefaction of a 30-40% dry matter suspension is needed to make the starch susceptible to enzymatic breakdown. The gelatinization temperature is different for different starches (Lii and Chang, 1991). Maize starch is the most widespread source followed by wheat, tapioca and […]

Enzymes for Starch Modification

Enzymes can be used to create different products for the food industry. The process has three main steps: liquefaction, saccharification, and isomerization. This can produce various syrups and modified starches with different properties. These products are commonly used in a wide range of foods like soft drinks, confectionery, meat products, baked goods, ice cream, sauces, […]

An Overview of Enzymatic Production of Glucose Syrups

Industrial enzymology is a branch of biotechnology that uses enzymes to upgrade and finish natural raw materials, and as an alternative to traditional chemical processes. Enzymes have been used since ancient times, such as in Greece for cheese production and fermentation processes for brewing, baking, and alcohol. Submerged fermentation techniques, which were developed in the […]

Advancements in Enzyme Engineering for Efficient Cellulosic Ethanol Production

The exploration of microorganisms for unique enzymes capable of degrading cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, or pectin is a continual process in the realm of bioprospecting. This article delves into ongoing efforts to discover and engineer enzymes that play a crucial role in the production of cellulosic ethanol. Diversity of Cellulolytic Enzymes Microorganisms ranging from anaerobic and […]

Advancements in Protein Engineering for Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Production

Protein engineering plays a pivotal role in advancing the prospects of sustainable cellulosic biofuel production. As new methods and technologies emerge, researchers strive to modify enzyme properties for more efficient lignocellulose deconstruction, a critical step in bioethanol production. This article explores recent studies, strategies, and technologies that contribute to the development of a more sustainable […]

Advancements in Enzyme Engineering for Enhanced Lignocellulosic Degradation

The pursuit of sustainable biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials relies heavily on the optimization of enzymes involved in biomass degradation. Directed evolution, a powerful tool in enzyme engineering, has been extensively applied to enhance the performance of key enzymes like endoglucanases (EGs), β-glucosidases (βGs), exoglucanases, hemicellulases, ligninolytic enzymes, and pectinases. This article explores the progress, […]

Revolutionizing Enzyme Development: A Comprehensive Exploration of Protein Engineering

In the dynamic landscape of industrial biotechnology, the quest for optimal enzymes has taken a transformative turn with the advent of protein engineering. Leveraging molecular biology, protein biochemistry, and computational biology, scientists are delving into the intricate world of enzyme functionalities, aiming to create novel enzymes with unprecedented traits. This article meticulously examines two principal […]