Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)

ADI stands for “Acceptable Daily Intake,” which is a measure of the amount of a substance (such as a food additive) that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk. The ADI is determined by international scientific organizations, such as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), based on […]

Biodegradable Polymers

Biodegradable polymers are synthetic materials that can break down into natural components in the environment through the action of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. They are often used in applications where traditional synthetic plastics may not be suitable, such as for single-use packaging or food containers, and as a result, reduce the accumulation of […]

Unveiling the Role of Plasticizers in Polymeric Marvels

In the intricate world of polymers and polymeric materials, plasticizers emerge as unsung heroes, transforming rigidity into flexibility and brittleness into malleability. These substances, strategically added to materials, play a pivotal role in shaping their physical properties. Let’s explore the nuances of plasticizers, their types, and their fascinating role in enhancing materials like thermoplastic starch. […]

The hydrolysis of starch and starch saccharification products

Hydrolysis of starch is a chemical process where starch molecules are broken down into smaller, simpler sugars (such as glucose) through the addition of water. This can occur through the action of enzymes (such as amylase) or through heat and acid treatments. The resulting mixture of sugars is referred to as hydrolysates, which can be […]

Thickening and Gelling Properties of starch

Starch thickening properties are based on its ability to absorb and retain water. When heated in water, the starch granules swell and release amylose, a type of starch molecule, which forms a gel-like network that entraps water. The thicker the gel network, the higher the viscosity and the thicker the resulting liquid will be. The […]

Exploring the World of Starch Derivatives: A Comprehensive Overview

Starch, a complex carbohydrate abundant in nature, undergoes transformative processes to give rise to a diverse family of derivatives. These modified forms of starch, shaped through chemical or physical alterations, offer an array of unique properties and applications, playing pivotal roles in both food and non-food industries. In this comprehensive exploration, we delve into the […]

Hydrocolloids used in food systems

Hydrocolloids are polysaccharides or proteins that are hydrophilic (water-loving) and form gels, thick suspensions, or thickeners when dispersed in water. They are widely used in the food industry as stabilizers, thickeners, and gelling agents to control texture, viscosity, and stability of food systems. Hydrocolloids are made from various natural sources such as seaweeds, plants, animals, […]

Sources and producers of starch

Starches are the major storage polysaccharides in foods of plant origin. Worldwide dry starch production is actually estimated at more than 64 million tons and almost 75 million tons are expected by 2012 (Patil, 2009). Current annual production for primary starch sources is estimated to be 46.1 million tons of corn, 9.1 million tons of […]

The Granular Structure and Gelatinization of Starch

Starch has a granular structure that describes the arrangement of starch molecules in a starch granule. These granules are round and made up of tightly packed starch molecules. When starch granules absorb water, they swell and dissolve through a process called starch gelatinization. This creates a thick, sticky solution of swollen starch molecules that can […]

Degree of polymerization (DP)

Starch polymer chains are long, linear or branched chains composed of repeating units of glucose. The length of the chain, known as the degree of polymerization (DP), can range from a few hundred to many thousands of glucose units. The structure of the starch polymer chain determines its physical properties, such as solubility, gelation, and […]