Uronic acids are a type of organic acid that are derived from monosaccharides, the building blocks of carbohydrates. They are characterized by the presence of a carboxylic acid group and a hydroxyl group on adjacent carbon atoms, which form a carboxylic acid functional group called a carboxylate.
Uronic acids are commonly found in the plant cell wall and are important in the biosynthesis of pectin and hemicellulose, which are major components of the cell wall. They are also found in the extracellular matrix of animals and humans, where they play a role in the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, and signaling.
Uronic acids can be synthesized from several different monosaccharides, including glucose, galactose, and mannose. They can also be produced through the oxidation of various carbohydrates, such as starch and cellulose. In addition, uronic acids can be modified through various chemical reactions, such as methylation and acetylation, which can alter their properties and biological activities.
Uronic acids have a number of important industrial and medical applications. For example, they are used in the production of paper, textiles, and food additives. They also have potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of diseases involving inflammation and tissue damage, as well as in drug delivery systems.