In a collaborative effort, the plastics industry and academic researchers are actively exploring innovative materials to supplant conventional, nonrenewable petrochemical polymers. The shift towards bio-based polymers, derived from renewable natural resources, not only presents a viable alternative but also champions environmental sustainability by curbing carbon dioxide emissions.
Traditional plastics, notorious for their poor biodegradability, contribute significantly to environmental pollution. Bio-based polymers emerge as a sustainable solution, offering the prospect of replacing these environmentally taxing materials. Crafted from renewable sources, bio-based polymers, especially those derived from starch, hold promise in minimizing carbon emissions. Their applications extend to biodegradable packaging materials, garnering attention across diverse sectors such as hygiene products, consumer goods, and agricultural tools.
Starch, recognized for its affordability, renewability, and biodegradability, has become a focal point for both academic and industrial interest. As a key ingredient in the production of biodegradable packaging, starch stands out as a compelling alternative to traditional polymers, particularly in scenarios where recycling proves impractical or cost-ineffective, or for short-term applications.
Comprising amylose and amylopectin, starch’s crystalline and granular structure poses challenges for direct processing akin to conventional plastics due to robust hydrogen bonds. However, ingenuity prevails through the introduction of plasticizers such as water or glycerol, transforming starch into a viscous melt known as thermoplastic starch (TPS). Nevertheless, TPS faces hurdles, including susceptibility to moisture in high humidity and complexities in handling, restricting its applicability in certain use cases.
Enter blending – a transformative technique devised to enhance the physical properties of existing polymers. Originating in the 1970s, blending involves the fusion of TPS with another thermoplastic, culminating in a polymer blend that addresses TPS limitations, notably poor mechanical properties and moisture sensitivity.
While blending offers an avenue for cost-effective improvement, challenges persist in achieving a uniform mixture due to inherent chemical differences between polymers. The resulting blend can either be miscible, forming a homogeneous single-phase system with enhanced properties, or immiscible, necessitating compatibilization methods to address poor adhesion.
Overcoming the hurdles of miscibility, mechanical property retention, and cost reduction, especially in biodegradable starch-polyester blends with low starch contents, remains a focal point for researchers and the packaging industry. Creative solutions involving physical treatments, such as compatibilizers and block copolymers, or chemical treatments through reactive processing, are instrumental in advancing the viability of starch-based blends.
As the quest for sustainable plastics intensifies, these challenges fuel ongoing research, pushing the boundaries of what starch-based blends can achieve in the pursuit of a greener, more eco-friendly future for the plastics industry.