Embarking on the journey of bioethanol production from maize, Zea mays, unveils a sophisticated process rooted in key stages. This article sheds light on the intricacies of a starch-based fermentation process, focusing on the dry-grind method employed in the United States, where production surpasses 400 liters of ethanol per tonne of maize, boasting a starch content of 63%.
The journey begins with maize grain milling, a crucial stage that involves particle size reduction. Subsequently, the milled maize encounters mashing and cooking, where it combines with water and undergoes heating to gelatinize starch. This sets the stage for the liquefaction phase, where commercial Į-amylase enzymes are introduced to reduce viscosity and yield maltose and dextrins.
Following liquefaction, saccharification takes center stage, featuring the addition of commercial glucoamylase enzymes. Their role is pivotal in liberating fermentable sugars from the dextrins created in the preceding stages. The fermented sugars then undergo conversion by yeast, marking the onset of the fermentation process. This transformation culminates in the production of ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Post-fermentation, the bioethanol undergoes distillation, a process elevating its concentration to approximately 95% v/v. The subsequent step is dehydration, where molecular sieves contribute to the production of near-anhydrous ethanol. Centrifugation follows suit, separating the thin stillage from the wet cake, creating a distinct phase in the process.
Evaporation comes next, concentrating the thin stillage to a syrupy consistency. The journey concludes with drying, a crucial phase where the evaporated stillage and wet cake undergo drying and blending to achieve 90% dry weight in Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS).
Beyond the ethanol yield, maize wet-milling processes hold the key to fractionating cereal grains into starch, germ, gluten, and fiber. This intricate process doesn’t merely stop at ethanol production; it yields a diverse array of valuable products.
In the grand symphony of maize-to-bioethanol conversion, each stage plays a distinct role, orchestrated to transform a staple crop into a renewable source of energy. The generation of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) serves as a testament to the efficiency of the process, showcasing the multifaceted benefits arising from bioethanol production from maize.