Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate, also known as washing soda, is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water. It is an alkaline compound with the chemical formula Na2CO3. Sodium carbonate is commonly used in various industrial, household, and personal care applications, such as cleaning products, water softening, and detergents. It is also used in the manufacturing of glass, soaps, and textiles. In the food industry, it is used as a pH buffer, a food additive, and a flavor enhancer. Sodium carbonate is found naturally in mineral deposits and can also be produced synthetically through the Solvay process.


Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), also known as soda ash or washing soda, is a white, crystalline powder that is commonly used in various industries, including the chemical, cleaning, and detergent industries. Some of the properties of sodium carbonate are:

  1. Solubility: Sodium carbonate is highly soluble in water, and its solubility increases with temperature.
  2. pH: Sodium carbonate is a basic compound, and it raises the pH of an aqueous solution.
  3. Melting point: Sodium carbonate has a melting point of 851°C.
  4. Density: Sodium carbonate has a density of 2.53 g/cm3.
  5. Alkalinity: Sodium carbonate is a strong base and has a high alkalinity.
  6. Chemical reactivity: Sodium carbonate reacts with acids to produce carbon dioxide gas. It also reacts with metal oxides to form metal carbonates.
  7. Stability: Sodium carbonate is a stable compound that is not flammable or explosive.

These properties of sodium carbonate make it a useful ingredient in many applications, including as a pH control agent, as a builder in detergents, and as a flux in the production of glass.


Sodium carbonate is a white, crystalline compound with the chemical formula Na2CO3. It is commonly known as washing soda or soda ash. There are several methods for producing sodium carbonate, including the Solvay process and the hydrothermal method.

The Solvay process, also known as the ammonia-soda process, is the most widely used method for producing sodium carbonate. This process involves the reaction of sodium chloride (NaCl), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce sodium carbonate, water (H2O), and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl).

The hydrothermal method, also known as the mineral carbonation process, involves the reaction of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) with calcium oxide (CaO) in high temperature and pressure conditions. This method results in the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sodium carbonate.

Both methods have advantages and disadvantages, but the Solvay process is the most commonly used method for large-scale production due to its relatively low cost, high yield, and low environmental impact.


Sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash, is a commonly used chemical compound with various applications across industries. Some of its key applications are:

  1. Detergents: Sodium carbonate is a key ingredient in many cleaning products, including laundry detergents and dishwashing liquids, due to its ability to soften water and boost cleaning power.
  2. Glass production: Sodium carbonate is used as a flux in the production of glass, helping to lower the melting point and increase the fluidity of the mixture.
  3. Textile production: Sodium carbonate is used in textile processing to neutralize acids and remove impurities from fibers, making them soft and absorbent.
  4. Water treatment: Sodium carbonate is used to adjust the pH levels of water, helping to reduce acidity and prevent corrosion.
  5. Baking soda production: Sodium carbonate can be processed to form baking soda, which is commonly used as a leavening agent in baking, as well as for cleaning and deodorizing.
  6. Food and pharmaceuticals: Sodium carbonate is used as a food and pharmaceutical additive, serving as a neutralizing agent, pH control, and firming agent.

Overall, sodium carbonate is a versatile compound with numerous applications across various industries.

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