Unlocking Starch Potential: Exploring Modifications for Enhanced Properties
The structural modifications of starch can profoundly impact its final properties. Here, we delve into various types of alterations and their effects on starch characteristics.
- Acetylation disrupts starch granules, reducing crystallinity and gelatinization temperature.
- Acetylated Black and Pinto bean starches exhibit improved properties like reduced syneresis, lower glycemic index, and increased resistant starch levels.
- Acetylation of Musa AAB (poovan banana) starch reduces non-starch components, enhances B-type crystalline structure, and increases swelling capacity.
- Surface esterification using dodecenyl succinic anhydride strengthens cornstarch films, enhancing strength, rigidity, and flexibility.
- Hydroxypropylated starches, created by adding propylene oxide, result in films with higher elongation, water vapor permeability, and transparency.
- Cross-linking alters physical and thermal properties, slowing retrogradation and raising gelatinization temperature.
- Graft copolymerization of phenyl methacrylate onto potato starch creates amphiphilic copolymers with unique properties.
- Oxidation with hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide changes starch molecular structure, affecting gelation, viscosity, and retrogradation.
- Ozone treatment reduces solubility in sago and tapioca starches but increases it in oxidized cornstarch.
- Acid-thinning hydrolysis increases gelatinization temperature, retrogradation tendency, and solubility, while decreasing viscosity and average molecular weight.
- Heat-stable α-amylase partially hydrolyzes starches, breaking down granules and reducing solid properties.
Understanding these modifications offers insights into tailoring starch for specific applications, from improved film properties to enhanced functional characteristics.