Unlocking Starch Potential: Exploring Modifications for Enhanced Properties

Unlocking Starch Potential: Exploring Modifications for Enhanced Properties

The structural modifications of starch can profoundly impact its final properties. Here, we delve into various types of alterations and their effects on starch characteristics.


  • Acetylation disrupts starch granules, reducing crystallinity and gelatinization temperature.
  • Acetylated Black and Pinto bean starches exhibit improved properties like reduced syneresis, lower glycemic index, and increased resistant starch levels.
  • Acetylation of Musa AAB (poovan banana) starch reduces non-starch components, enhances B-type crystalline structure, and increases swelling capacity.

Surface Modification:

  • Surface esterification using dodecenyl succinic anhydride strengthens cornstarch films, enhancing strength, rigidity, and flexibility.
  • Hydroxypropylated starches, created by adding propylene oxide, result in films with higher elongation, water vapor permeability, and transparency.


  • Cross-linking alters physical and thermal properties, slowing retrogradation and raising gelatinization temperature.
  • Graft copolymerization of phenyl methacrylate onto potato starch creates amphiphilic copolymers with unique properties.


  • Oxidation with hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide changes starch molecular structure, affecting gelation, viscosity, and retrogradation.
  • Ozone treatment reduces solubility in sago and tapioca starches but increases it in oxidized cornstarch.

Acid Hydrolysis:

  • Acid-thinning hydrolysis increases gelatinization temperature, retrogradation tendency, and solubility, while decreasing viscosity and average molecular weight.

Enzymatic Hydrolysis:

  • Heat-stable α-amylase partially hydrolyzes starches, breaking down granules and reducing solid properties.

Understanding these modifications offers insights into tailoring starch for specific applications, from improved film properties to enhanced functional characteristics.

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