Dual Modification of Starch

Dual modification is a combined method of either chemical and physical or chemical and enzymatic. The control of reaction conditions is important during preparation of dual-modified cross-linked/hydroxypropylated starches using different cross-linking reagents with different starch bases such as maize, tapioca, wheat, waxy maize, waxy barley, rice, and sago (Amitrano et al., 1975; Wattanachant et al., 2003; Yeh and Yeh, 1993; Yook et al., 1993). The quantity of cross-linking reagent required to prepare a dual-modified starch (with desirable properties) varies with the source of starch, the type of cross-linking reagent, the efficiency of the cross-linking reaction, the DS required and the specified range of final modified-starch properties. The effects of different reaction conditions such as starch base concentration, temperature, pH, and the concentration of the catalyst salt plays an important role during preparation of dual-modified starch (Singh et al., 2016). Because of good stability against acid, thermal, mechanical degradation, and retrogradation, dual-modified starches are used widely in salad dressings, canned foods, frozen foods, and puddings (Wurzburg, 1986). For example, cross-linked and phosphorylated rice starch provide better freeze-thaw stability (Deetae et al., 2008).

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